Born in 1991 from dissolvement of the Soviet Union, Georgia is today a parliamentary republic. The country is located at the eastern end of the Black Sea, on the southern slopes of the Greater Caucasus Mountain Range. It borders with Russia to the north and northeast, Azerbaijan to the east and southeast, Armenia and Turkey to the south, and the Black Sea to the west. The capital city is Tbilisi.
Within its boundaries, Georgia includes Abkhazia, a de facto state located in the north of the country; South Ossetia, a de facto state located in the north-east of the country; and Ajaria, an autonomous republic located in the south, along the border with Turkey.
Georgia has an ethnically homogenous population. About four-fifths of the population is Georgian, while the rest of the population is mainly Armenian, Russian, Azerbaijani and, to a lesser extent, Ossetian, Greek and Abkhazian. The Georgian language has its own alphabetical system, which is thought to have evolved around the 5th century AD.
Many Georgians are members of the Georgian Apostolic Church, an independent Eastern Orthodox church. Other religious communities include: Russian Orthodox, Armenian Apostolic, Catholics and Jews.
Rich in natural beauties, history and culture, Georgia is characterized by a fast-growing tourism industry. However, this has been adversely affected by the Covid-19 pandemic, which cut international tourist arrivals and revenues by 70-80 percent in 2020 and 2021, compared to pre-pandemic levels.
Despite the growth of the tourist sector, overall, Georgia has continued to show a structurally weak economy, still not well connected to external markets. The country’s economy is largely based on agriculture, which – according to the world bank – in 2020 employed over 41 percent of the workforce, but accounted for just 5.6 percent of the country’s GDP. Italy is Georgia's third biggest European trading partner, with a trade volume of around $351 million in 2021.
Georgia is a member of the World Trade Organisation and was the first Caucasian country to benefit from the Generalised System of Preferences 'GSP+', an incentive agreement for sustainable development. The country is also one of the six Caucasian and Eastern European countries to have signed the so-called "Eastern Partnership" with the European Union.
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|Capo di stato||Salome Zourabichvili|
|Capo del Governo||Irakli Garibashvili|
|Forma Istituzionale||Parliamentary Republic|
|Potere Legislativo||Unicameral Parliament (Sakartvelos, 150 seats planned, 144 distributed)|
|Potere Giudiziario||Supreme Court (28 judges) and Constitutional Court (9 judges)|
|Ambasciatore in Italia||Konstantine Surguladze|
|Area Totale||69,700 km2|
|Clima||Warm and mild. Mediterranean on the Black Sea coast|
|Risorse Naturali||Wood, hydropower, iron, manganese, copper, coal, oil.|
|Sintesi Economica||Georgia's main economic activities are agriculture, the production of metals, machinery, and hydropower. The Georgian economy has seen a period of recovery following the 2008 conflict; however, some difficulties remain such as the high unemployment rate. The country is trying to improve its economic performances by supporting entrepreneurial activity, streamlining bureaucracy and, in particular, investing in infrastructures.|
|Pil||$ 18.7 billion (Dec.2021)|
|Pil pro capite (Parità di potere di acquisto)||$ 4927 (Dec. 2021)|
$ 542 million (2022)
|Export partner||Russia 12%, Azerbaijan 12%, Armenia 9%, Bulgaria 8%, China 6%, Turkey 6% (2019)|
$ 1.1 billion (2022)
|Import partner||Turkey 17%. China 11%, Russia 9%, Azerbaijan 6%, United States 6%, Germany 5% (2019)|
|Trade With Italy||$351 million (2021)|
|Popolazione||3.7 million (2022)|
|Population Growth||+ 0.03% (2022)|
|Etnie||Predominantly Georgians; Azerbaijani, Armenian, Russian minorities.|
|Lingue||Georgian (official); Azerbaijani, Armenian and Russian are also spoken (in Abkhazia the official language is Abkhazian).|
|Religione||Predominantly Orthodox Christians; large minority of Muslims; there is also the presence of apostolic Armenians, Catholics and Jews|