The Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan gained independence in 1946. The country borders with Syria to the north and northeast, with Iraq to the northeast, with Saudi Arabia to the east and southeast, and with Israel and the Red Sea to the west. It has a population of about 11 million. Arabic, which is spoken as a first language by 95 percent of the population, is the official language. However, English is widely used in the business sector and education, at university level and in public schools.
Its position at the center of the Levant, its history and political and diplomatic relations with many countries in the region, have awarded Jordan strategic regional importance. This is further increased by the fact that the country is crossed north-south by the Arab Gas Pipeline, built to export natural gas from Egypt to Jordan, Syria and Lebanon.
The Kingdom is a major ally of the United States. It has good relations with other Arab countries, as well as Turkey, and it acts as a regional mediator.
Jordan is the second Arab country, after Egypt, to have signed a peace treaty with Israel, in 1994. Historically, it has been home to a high number of Palestinian refugees and currently hosts 1.3 million Syrian refugees.
In 2021 the trade between Italy and Jordan reached $ 641,6 million. For Italy, Jordan is a crucial political partner in the region. The Italian Development Cooperation Agency supports Jordan in delivering reforms to enhance public services for better life conditions. Italy is a key partner in a number of projects focused on a few priority sectors. For example, in 2019 Italy promoted a €85 million project to implement education initiatives, with a specific emphasis on early childhood and vocational training. Cooperation in the cultural sector is also important, with Italy playing a very active role in promoting the protection of Jordan’s cultural heritage and supporting sustainable tourism. In the research sector, Italy allocated €5 million to the Sesame project, the first particle accelerator in the Near East, and the first in the world to be powered by solar energy, located in Jordan.
Despite the difficulties caused by the pandemic, king Abdullah is showing all of his diplomatic abilities. The renewed good relations with the US and with several other states across the region could make Jordan a valuable mediator in the MENA region.
Water stress could exacerbate the already tense situation in the Levant and limit regional cooperation, but also offer an opportunity for countries to strike deals on an equal basis that benefit all sides. The case of Jordan and Israel. By Giorgia Perletta
Med-Or Foundation Chairman, Marco Minniti, and the Ambassador of the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan, Kais Abu Dayyeh, signed a Letter of Intent for cooperation in the fields of academic and professional education and in projects aimed at developing the capacity building of Jordan
|Capo di stato||Abdullah II|
|Capo del Governo||Bisher Al-Khasawneh|
|Forma Istituzionale||Unitary parliamentary semi-constitutional monarchy|
|Potere Legislativo||The bicameral National Assembly is divided into the Senate (65 Members) and the Chamber of Deputies (130 Members)|
|Potere Giudiziario||Court of Cassation or Supreme Court (consists of 15 members)|
|Ambasciatore in Italia||Kais Abu Dayyeh|
|Area Totale||89,342 km2|
|Clima||Arid desert; rainy season in the west (November to April)|
|Risorse Naturali||Phosphates, potassium and oil shale|
|Sintesi Economica||The Jordanian economy is among the smallest of the Middle East, with insufficient supplies of water, oil and other natural resources.|
|Pil||$45.24 billion (Dec. 2021)|
|Pil pro capite (Parità di potere di acquisto)||$4092 (Dec. 2021)|
$9.72 billion (2020)
|Export partner||United States 21.6%, Saudi Arabia 11.8%, India 10.4%, Iraq 6.81%, China 5.76% (2020)|
$19.1 billion (2020)
|Import partner||China 16.9%, Saudi Arabia 12.4%, United States 7.02%, UAE 6.73% (2020)|
|Trade With Italy||$ 641,6 million (2021)|
|Population Growth||+0,81% (2022 est.)|
|Etnie||Jordanians 69.4%, Syrians 13.3%, Palestinians 6.7%, Egyptians 6.7%, Iraqis 1.4%, others 2.5% (includes Armenians and Circassians)|
|Lingue||Arabic (official language), English, Circassian, Armenian|
|Religione||Muslims 97.1% (official; predominantly Sunnis), Christians 2.1% (majority Greek Orthodox, but some Greek Catholics, Syrian Orthodox, Coptic Orthodox, Armenian Orthodox and Protestants), Buddhists 0.4%, Hindus 0.1%, Jews <0.1%, folk <0.1%, others <0.1%, unaffiliated <0.1% (2020)|
|Urbanizzazione||91,8% (2022 est.)|