Independent since 1932, when the Hashemite monarchy took full control of the country, and a republic since 1958, Iraq borders with Turkey to the north, Saudi Arabia and Kuwait to the south, Syria and Jordan to the west, and Iran to the east. To the southeast, for a brief tract, it overlooks the Persian Gulf. Its population is over 40 million and its official languages are Arabic and Kurdish, although large minorities speak Turkish and Assyrian languages as their first language.
From an ethnic and religious perspective, Iraq is a very diverse country, with a large Shia community, which represents the relative majority of the population, as well as sizeable Kurdish, Christian and Yazidi minorities, and a significant presence of Sunnis.
In recent times, after the end of a bloody war against Iran (1980-1988), the country has been the theatre of the two Gulf Wars, in 1991 and 2003. After the fall of regime of President Saddam Hussein, the country has undergone a long and complex transition. Its political stability has often been threatened both by sectarian tensions and conflicts between Shias and Sunnis, as well as by the presence of extremist organizations including, most recently, the Islamic State. While this has had detrimental effects on the economic recovery of the country, today Iraq is continuing on the path to democracy.
Despite its economic problems, Iraq is one of the main oil producers in the world. In 2021 Iraq-Italy trade reached $ 4,74 billion. The two countries co-operate in various sectors, especially energy and also work together on infrastructure projects, the protection and conservation of cultural heritage, and the training of local military personnel.
On 10 October Iraq held elections for the renewal of its parliament: results and future challenges of the new government.
Defence Minister Crosetto’s visit to Iraq was an opportunity to reaffirm Italy’s political-military commitment and to discuss new forms of economic cooperation
How international scientific collaborations can help people fighting climate change, particularly in the Broader Mediterranean. An analysis by Silvia Camisasca
|Capo di stato||Abdul Latif Rashid|
|Capo del Governo||Muhammad Shia al Sudani|
|Forma Istituzionale||Federal parliamentary republic|
|Potere Legislativo||Council of Representatives (Majlis an-Nuwwab al-Iraqiyy, 329 members)|
|Potere Giudiziario||Supreme Federal Court (9 judges); Cassation Court (composed of one Court President, 5 Vice-president and 24 judges)|
|Ambasciatore in Italia||Saywan Sabir Mustafa Barzani|
|Area Totale||438,317 km2|
|Clima||Hot, arid and subtropical|
|Risorse Naturali||Petroleum, phosphates, natural gas and agriculture|
|Sintesi Economica||The economy is mainly based on the extraction and sale of oil, attracting a lot of foreign investment. Some other activities are pastoralism and agriculture; however, the growing climate crisis has exacerbated the agricultural sector, which doesn’t have enough water to irrigate the fields.|
|Pil||$208 billion (Dec. 2021)|
|Pil pro capite (Parità di potere di acquisto)||$4466 (Dec. 2021)|
$58.3 billion (2020)
|Export partner||China 29.1%, India 24.8%, Türkiye 14%, South Korea 6.48%, Italy 3.89% (2020) Imports: $46.7 billion (2020)|
$46.7 billion (2020)
|Import partner||UAE 28.1%, China 23.4%, Türkiye 19.6%, India 3.12%, Italy 1.32% (2020)|
|Trade With Italy||$ 4,74 billion (2021)|
|Popolazione||40.462.701 (2022 est.)|
|Population Growth||2% (2022)|
|Etnie||Arabs 75-80%, Kurds 15-20%, others 5%|
|Lingue||Arabic (official), Kurdish (official), Turkmen (a Turkish dialect), Syriac (Neo-Aramaic) and Armenian in majority areas|
|Religione||Islamic (official) 95-98% (Shia 55-60%, Sunni about 40%), Christian 1%, other 1-4%|