Independent since 1932, when the Hashemite monarchy took full control of the country, and a republic since 1958, Iraq borders with Turkey to the north, Saudi Arabia and Kuwait to the south, Syria and Jordan to the west, and Iran to the east. To the southeast, for a brief tract, it overlooks the Persian Gulf. Its population is over 40 million and its official languages are Arabic and Kurdish, although large minorities speak Turkish and Assyrian languages as their first language.

From an ethnic and religious perspective, Iraq is a very diverse country, with a large Shia community, which represents the relative majority of the population, as well as sizeable Kurdish, Christian and Yazidi minorities, and a significant presence of Sunnis.

In recent times, after the end of a bloody war against Iran (1980-1988), the country has been the theatre of the two Gulf Wars, in 1991 and 2003. After the fall of regime of President Saddam Hussein, the country has undergone a long and complex transition. Its political stability has often been threatened both by sectarian tensions and conflicts between Shias and Sunnis, as well as by the presence of extremist organizations including, most recently, the Islamic State. While this has had detrimental effects on the economic recovery of the country, today Iraq is continuing on the path to democracy.

Despite its economic problems, Iraq is one of the main oil producers in the world. In 2021 Iraq-Italy trade reached $ 4,74 billion. The two countries co-operate in various sectors, especially energy and also work together on infrastructure projects, the protection and conservation of cultural heritage, and the training of local military personnel.


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Med-Or Foundation hosts a workshop on Saudi-Iran relations

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