Established in 1948, Israel is located at the southeastern end of the Mediterranean Sea. The country is bordered to the west by the Mediterranean Sea, to the north by Lebanon, to the northeast by Syria, to the east by Egypt and the Gulf of Aqaba, to the east by the West Bank and to the southwest by the Gaza Strip. With a population of over 9 million living on a territory measuring 22,072 sq. Km, Israel is one of the most densely populated countries in the Mediterranean Basin. The official language is Hebrew, while Arabic has a special status.
Since its creation and until the early 2000, Israel has been involved in various conflicts with neighbouring countries. Relations with some of these remain complex to this day. The signature of the 2020 Abraham Accords between Israel, Bahrain, the United Arab Emirates, Morocco and Sudan has normalized relations between the five countries. Israel had previously signed peace treaties with Egypt and Jordan, in 1979 and 1994 respectively.
Israel is a key state in the Near East, both from a geopolitical and economic point of view. It has a very developed market economy, with a strong specialization in the high-tech sector, and deep relations with Western and European countries.
Total trade with Italy stood at about $ 4.6 billion in 2021. The recent discovery of offshore gas fields in the Israeli territorial waters has heightened the country’s relevance in the regional energy market. As a consequence, the main Italian companies in the sector are exploring possibilities to establish partnerships with Israel. The two countries also share an interest in the space sector. As part of the Israeli-Italian Initiative, the space agencies of both countries are developing an innovative observation satellite that will operate in the field of environmental protection.
Water stress could exacerbate the already tense situation in the Levant and limit regional cooperation, but also offer an opportunity for countries to strike deals on an equal basis that benefit all sides. The case of Jordan and Israel. By Giorgia Perletta
A report on the US Secretary of State’s recent visit to the Middle East. By Anna Maria Cossiga
Recent meetings between Italian and Israeli authorities further strengthen already strong relations. By Anna Maria Cossiga
|Capo di stato||Isaac Herzog|
|Capo del Governo||Benjamin Netanyahu|
|Forma Istituzionale||Parliamentary Republic|
|Capitale||Jerusalem (the capital city is recognised by United States, the Czech Republic, Hungary, Guatemala and Honduras. The other countries of the United Nations have their embassies in Tel Aviv)|
|Potere Legislativo||Unicameral Knesset (120 Members of Parliament)|
|Potere Giudiziario||Supreme Court|
|Ambasciatore in Italia||Alon Bar|
|Area Totale||Around 22.000 km2|
|Clima||Temperate-tropical climate, very sunny with two different seasons: a rainy winter period from November to May, and a dry summer season for the other six months.|
|Risorse Naturali||wood, potassium, copper, natural gas, phosphates, clay and sand|
|Sintesi Economica||An economy based on a free and technologically advanced market, but It’s a bit restricted by an unequal income and a high price of housing and necessities|
|Pil||$487 billion (December 2021)|
|Pil pro capite (Parità di potere di acquisto)||$39.913 (December 2021)|
$113.87 billion (2020 est.)
|Export partner||US 27.7%, China 9.12%, Palestine 6.57%, India 3.23%, Turkey 2.96% (2020)|
$96.53 billion (2020 est.)
|Import partner||China 13.2%, Turkey 6.86%, Germany 7.52%, Italy 4.08%, Netherlands 3.74% (2020)|
|Trade With Italy||$4.61 billion (2021)|
|Population Growth||+1,44% (2022 est.)|
|Etnie||Jewish 74.9%, and an Arabic minority about 20%|
|Lingue||Hebrew (the official language) and Arabic (with a special status)|
|Religione||Jewish 73.4%, Islam 17.8%, Christianity 1.9%, Druze 1.4%, other religions 4.4%|
|Urbanizzazione||92,8% (2022 est.)|