Located in East Africa, Ethiopia is the oldest independent state in Africa, whose origin can be traced back to 1270 A.C. Since then, the country has always maintained independence, despite a short period of Italian occupation (between 1936 and 1941). The Ethiopian Empire lasted until 1974, when it was overthrown by a military coup d'état.
Ethiopia is a landlocked country, bordering to the south with Kenya, to the southeast and east with Somalia, to the northeast with Djibouti, to the north with Eritrea, to the northwest with Sudan and to the west with South Sudan. Ethiopia’s population is 113.6 million, which makes it the second most populous country in Africa, after Nigeria. The official language is Amharic, but Oromo, Tigrinya and Somali as well as tens of other ethnic languages are regularly spoken in the country.
From a geostrategic perspective, Ethiopia is a very important country in the region. Since the beginning of the 2000s, it has achieved an important level of economic development, making it one of the main emerging market in sub-Saharan Africa. Ethiopia has an ongoing dispute with Sudan and Egypt over the construction of the Grand Ethiopian Renaissance Dam and the sharing of the Nile waters. It has also an open border dispute with Sudan, which has been the source of recent military confrontations between the two countries. Domestically, the disruption of the delicate balance based on ethnic federalism has turned into a conflict in the north of the country, which is still ongoing.
Trade with Italy is significant, and Ethiopia ranks fifth among Italy’s main export markets in sub-Saharan Africa. Overall, Italy is the fifth trading partner for Ethiopia. Italian companies are contracted for several infrastructural projects in the country, including the construction of the Grand Ethiopian Renaissance Dam, for which the Italian multinational Webuild (former Salini Impregilo) is the main contractor.
The conflict in Ethiopia is still far from being resolved, but the beginning of negotiations between the two sides might be an important step forward for the country and the entire Horn of Africa.
The visit of Italy’s President of the Republic to Kenya comes at a historic moment when the eyes of the world are on the region. Between symbolic and pragmatic, the visit puts Africa back at the heart of Italian foreign policy.
The trilateral meeting between Italy, Ethiopia and Somalia held during Prime Minister Giorgia Meloni’s visit to Ethiopia highlights Italy’s intention to view this region as strategic for the stability of the Broader Mediterranean. Her visit coincides with the beginning of hostilities in Sudan, which threatens to unleash a new wave of illegal migration towards Italian shores.
|Capo di stato||Sahle-Work Zewde|
|Capo del Governo||Abiy Ahmed Ali|
|Forma Istituzionale||Federal Parliamentary Republic|
|Potere Legislativo||Bicameral Parliament: House of Federation (112 Members); House of People’s representatives (547 Members)|
|Potere Giudiziario||Federal Supreme Court|
|Ambasciatore in Italia||Demitu Hambisa Bonsa|
|Area Totale||1.104.300 Km2|
|Clima||Tropical-monsonic; the climate conditions change considerably depending on the geography|
|Risorse Naturali||gold, platinum, copper, potassium, natural gas and hydropower|
|Sintesi Economica||Ethiopia has the lowest level of income inequality in Africa and one of the lowest in the world. The key sectors of planned economy that belong to the State are telecommunications, banking and insurance, energy distribution. More than 70% of the population works in agriculture, but services have overtaken this sector and it represents the main source of GDP|
|Pil||$111 billion (Dec. 2021)|
|Pil pro capite (Parità di potere di acquisto)||$2366 (Dec. 2021)|
$3.5 billion (2020)
|Export partner||Hong Kong 7.23%, UAE 7.05%, Saudi Arabia 5.78%, Netherland 5.07%, Germany, 4.81%, Italy 2.33% (2020)|
$11.1 billion (2020)
|Import partner||China 24.9%, India 8.17%, UAE 7.22%, Kuwait 4.8%, France 4.71%, UK 3.58%, Italy 2.27% (2020)|
|Trade With Italy||$277,34 million (2021)|
|Population Growth||+2,46% (2022 est.)|
|Etnie||Orome 34%, Amhara 27%, Tigray 7%, Sidama 4%, Welaita 3%, Gurage 2%, Somalis 2%, Hadiva 2%, Afar 0.6%, other groups 12%|
|Lingue||Orome 33%, Amharic 29%, Somalian 6%, Tiger 5%, Cider 4%, Wolaytta 2%, Gurage 2%, Aother 16%|
|Religione||Ethiopian Orthodox 43.8%, Muslims 31.3%, Protestants 22.8%, Chatolics 0.7%, traditional religions 0.6%, other religions 0.8%|
|Urbanizzazione||22,7% (2022 est.)|