Independent since 1947, Libya is a country in North Africa, bordering with the Mediterranean Sea to the north, Egypt to the east, Sudan, Chad and Niger to the south, Algeria to the west and Tunisia to the northwest. The population is about 7 million and the official language is Arabic.
After the first Libyan civil war in 2011, which led to international military intervention and the fall of the Gaddafi regime, Libya has entered a critical stage in its history, experiencing civil conflict which has also affected the rest of the region. After the signing of a formal ceasefire between the parties involved in the conflict, Libya is now heading toward a complex transition stage.
Trade between Libya and Italy amounts to $8,61 billion (2021), with a negative balance for Italy. The bulk of Italian sales to Libya consists of petroleum products, but a significant proportion is also taken up by machinery, electrical appliances and food. Italian imports from Libya mainly consist of crude oil, followed by natural gas and, to a lesser extent, products derived from the process of oil refining, chemical products, fertilisers and nitrogen compounds. Libya plays an important role for Italy, not only because its proximity makes it a “natural” oil supplier for the Italian market, but also because it is a crossing point for migration flows from Africa to Europe.
After electing Fathi Bashaga as Prime Minister, Libya is getting ready to turn the page. A look at possible scenarios in this new phase.
Tensions in Libya could escalate into a dramatic crisis. The international community is assessing alternative solutions, including a ‘mini-government’ to lead the country to general elections. By Daniele Ruvinetti
US actions in Libya and the Near East focus on promoting the country’s political and economic stabilisation, countering the Wagner Group and supporting allies.
|Capo di stato||Mohammad Younes Menfi|
|Capo del Governo||Abdul Hamid Mohammed Dbeibeh|
|Forma Istituzionale||National Unity Government|
|Potere Legislativo||House of Representatives (unicameral, 200 Members of Parliament)|
|Potere Giudiziario||A transitional judicial system|
|Area Totale||1.759.540 Km2|
|Clima||Desertic hinterland, Mediterranean climate on the coasts|
|Risorse Naturali||oil, natural gas, plaster|
|Sintesi Economica||The economy depends almost exclusively on oil and gas exports, but it’s compromised by political and security instability, the suspension of oil production and the decline of oil prices in global market|
|Pil||$41.88 billion (December 2021)|
|Pil pro capite (Parità di potere di acquisto)||$8753 (December 2021)|
$8.4 billion (2020)
|Export partner||Italy 21.1%, Turkey 19.6%, UAE 10.6%, Germany 9.14%, China 8.48%, Spain 7.53%, France 5.59% (2020)|
$11.8 billion (2020)
|Import partner||China 15.9%, Turkey 14%, Italy 8.51%, UAE 8.49%, Greece 6.09%, Netherlands 4.8%, Germany 3.45% (2020)|
|Trade With Italy||$8,61 billion (2021)|
|Popolazione||7.137.931 (2022 est.)|
|Population Growth||+1,65% (2022 est.)|
|Etnie||Berber arabs 97%, other groups 3% (in part Italian)|
|Religione||Muslim 96.6% (Islam is the official religion), Christianity 2.7%, other religions 0.3%|
|Urbanizzazione||81,3% (2022 est.)|
|Alfabetizzazione||91% (2022 est.)|